Arginine Derived Nitric Oxide (ADNO)
What is Arginine?
1. Arginine molecules come in two mirror forms. The exciting one is the left-handed one, which is L-arginine. It is an amino acid and one of the 22 ‘building blocks’, which make the proteins required for every living cell. Originally, when humans lived off wild game and natural foods, we consumed enough Arginine. Anthropological studies (and studies of Inuits and native Australians) show that prehistoric hunter-gathers were before farming free from rheumatism, cancer, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Arginine derived nitric oxide (ADNO) is naturally in the body, but unless you are living the life of a hunter-gatherer, eating wild game and avoiding modern fatty and processed foods [i], you will not obtain enough in your diet optimally to preserve your health. Both Arginine and ADNO are natural elements and not drugs, or artificial additives. Farmed meat is much lower in Arginine than wild meat. Due to our modern diet we need supplementation. There is no function in our body, which does not involve ADNO.
What does ADNO do?
2. The important thing about Arginine is that when swallowed it passes through the stomach to the Villi in the intestines, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream triggering the production of nitric oxide (ADNO) in the endothelial cells in the walls of the blood vessels. ADNO is rightly referred to by informed scientists as the “miracle molecule”. It is amazing that so few people have heard of the miracle molecule, because as long ago as 1992 it was “Science Molecule of the Year”. Even then the journal, “Science” reported that, “It helps maintain blood pressure by dilating blood vessels, helps kill foreign invaders in the immune response, is a major mediator of penile erections, and is probably a major biochemical component of long-term memory.” By 1998 work on the miracle molecule won the Nobel Prize. Just about everyone in the Western world can benefit greatly from ADNO. It can cure, but more importantly it can prevent illness. According to one of the Nobel Laureates, “Our findings could help millions and millions of people – even those already afflicted – to safeguard the health of their hearts and vascular systems.” [ii]
3. Just some of the benefits of ADNO are listed in “The Arginine Solution” by Dr Robert Fried et al (although published in 1999 still a ‘must read’):
- It relaxes arteries, thereby helping to maintain normal blood pressure… [In one study just 2 grams of Arginine taken daily by mouth was found to reduce systolic blood pressure in borderline high blood pressure suffers by 20 points [iii]]
- It helps keep open the coronary arteries that supply the heart, preventing angina pain.
- It’s a potent free radical scavenger that helps to both lower serum cholesterol and prevent the ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol from oxidizing and becoming even worse. [one test showed significant reduction of “bad” LDL cholesterol – low density lipoproteins - with no reduction of the good HDL cholesterol [iv] LDL brings cholesterol in and HDL takes it out of the body. Please see below, however, for vital qualification about LDL cholesterol]
- It’s a powerful anticoagulant, or blood thinner, that helps prevent blood platelets from clumping together into clots that can cause heart attack and stroke. [More women than men now die of heart disease]
- It enhances blood flow to the penis helping to boost erections [It is thought to be equally helpful to the sexual health of women. Viagra is related to ADNO research]
- It serves as a critical ‘bullet’ for different immune-system cells that use it to kill foreign bacteria and viruses and even shrink…some cancerous tumours [As long ago as 1991 cancer surgeons in Scotland found that oral Aginine given to cancer patients stimulated a 91% increase in the ability of lymphocyte cells to neutralize target cells [v] and now there is abundant evidence of tumour reduction [vi]. In 2010 research confirmed that dietary arginine supplementation inhibits the progression of colon cancer [vii]]
- It is used by the brain to encode long-term memory and ensure blood flow to brain cells
- It functions as a ‘messenger molecule’ that allows nerve cells in the body and the brain to communicate with each other
- It may reduce pregnancy-related hypertension…
- It may regulate insulin secretion by the pancreas, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes
- It helps control the lung airways, allowing you to breathe easier and avoid common lung disorders
- It relaxes ‘hypertonic’ sphincter muscles, preventing and healing h[a]emorrhoids and anal fissures
- It stimulates the body into releasing the all-important human growth hormone (HGH), a key to longevity as well as improvement in body composition by boosting lean muscle mass and bone density while decreasing fat tissue [Also good in different ways for weight lifters, bodybuilders and, being ant-ageing, glamour models. Generally we produce the same amount of HGH as we grow older, but we do not release it. A large intravenous infusion of Arginine was found to increase the release of HGH by 1,100% in healthy women [viii]. It also softens and rejuvenates collagen so appearance of wrinkles and lines diminishes and skin tone improves]
- It detoxifies your body by helping your liver eliminate ammonia, a deleterious waste product that can build up rapidly during heavy lifting, sprinting and other short but explosive bouts of exercise
4. Western medicine is overly concerned with treating symptoms. It is important to address the cause of illness and more important still to address prevention of illness. We do not have a headache because we lack of paracetamol. If the oil light comes on in our car we put in more oil, we do not take a hammer and smash out the oil light and yet that is the equivalent of what some doctors do when they only treat the symptoms.Lack of ADNO
5. Heart disease and cerebrovascular disease (strokes) are the major killers in our modern world. Even before death they can be debilitating. Such disease can involve diabetes and atherosclerosis. Autopsies on American combat victims have shown that even young fit men can have significant fatty streaks in their heart arteries. ADNO is not just for the old. Avoid the vicious circle. Chronic hypertension, elevated serum cholesterol, artherosclerosis, oxygen free radicals and smoking can all reduce the production of ADNO, the very thing which can help combat the damage they cause.
6. Meat (especially game), fish, dairy products and eggs are reasonably high in Arginine. There is some in grains, nuts and seeds, but hardly any in fruit and vegetables (very good for you though they are). As noted above, unless you are a lion or hunter-gatherer eating game meat then even if you have a normal balanced diet you do not consume enough Arginine and 6 grams of supplemental Arginine daily is recommended [ix]. Just 4 grams a day will produce some distinct benefit and, if you have an illness responsive to ADNO doses well in excess of 6 grams daily should be considered in consultation with your physician. Dr Ignarro (Nobel Laureate) says the daily dose of at least 4 to 6 grams daily is “All or nothing” – less and you are “wasting your money”. Ideally the Arginine should be taken in equal doses twice or three times a day. Many people find taking it before sleep, as recommended by Dr Ignarro, very efficacious. I always take 3 to 6 grams before vigorous exercise, such as heavy manual work, or a game of tennis with amazing results. Always avoid ingesting Arginine with or within an hour of a significant protein intake. You will suffer no harm, but the one will interfere with the digestion of the other partly wasting the supplement. When Arginine is synergized with L-citrulline, nitric oxide output is inreased [x].
How the Cardiovascular System Malfunctions and ADNO
7. It is important to understand your cardiovascular system. There are about 100,000 miles of arteries and veins in your body and the heart beats about 100,000 times a day. The wall/surface of the artery is called the endothelium. Round this are smooth muscle cells, which are relaxed by ADNO reducing blood pressure [xi]. Inside the artery wall fed by narrow channels (vasa vasorum) are the vital endothelial cells. Just a thin fatty deposit can block off the narrow channels to these key cells causing them to cease to function, or to die. Fatty deposits tend first to occur in areas where the blood is turbulent (i.e. narrower parts, or bends). Cells called macrophages absorb/surround oxidized LDL cholesterol forming ‘foam cells’ and lodge in the vessel wall. The build up of foam cells is perceived by the small disk shaped repair cells, platelets, as damage and they become sticky creating layers over the foam cells. “When the endothelium makes less [AD]NO, it becomes less like Teflon and more like Velcro.” [xii]. The accumulation is strictly speaking within rather than on the wall of the artery, because it is created by penetration of the thin layer of surface cells and consequent inflammation. Gradually inflammatory accumulation worsens with more LDL attracted to the increasing pinch point (‘stenosis’ meaning narrowing) so that the plaque layers of collagen, fibrin and cholesterol thicken and harden. Parts of these accumulations will sometimes break away (sometimes releasing a pus, which itself causes blood clotting) blocking blood from reaching part of the brain (a stroke/cerebrovascular accident), or part of the heart (a heart attack/myocardial infarction). These are still the top killers and debilitators in the west with women now suffering about as badly as men, but unfortunately women’s symptoms are often less clear. But do not despair, because ADNO:
- controls LDL cholesterol (cholesterol rich bile in the gallbladder crystallizes into agonizing stones)
- most importantly reduces the oxidization of LDL cholesterol [xiii]
- reduces the tendency for immune system cells to attach themselves to the vessel walls [xiv]
- deters (for 2 weeks or more after ingestion [xv]) the platelets from becoming sticky and clumping (other anticoagulants such as aspirin also do this, but with side effects such as irritation to stomach, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and unwanted coagulation elsewhere such as when there is bleeding into the brain/a stroke, while warfarin’s side effects include unusual bleeds, unusual headaches, rashes, nausea or vomiting, hair loss, diarrhoea and the need for regular blood tests. I had a client who lost the sight in one eye due to warfarin induced retinal bleeding, although this is admittedly very rare. Sadly he was only on warfarin due to a computer error) [xvi]
- restores endothelial cells (pigs with endothelial damage had normal function restored by Arginine [xvii]). “We were beginning to realize the power of L-arginine; even patients whose blood vessels were impaired by high cholesterol, L-arginine increased production of nitric oxide, which improved vessel health. It was remarkable that an amino acid could help restore blood flow at all, let alone so rapidly. ”[xviii]
- transforms the menacing complex plaque in the arteries (the foam sacks etc. above) to a more stable fibrous plaque less likely to rupture and cause problems [xix]
- improves blood flow [xx]
- reduces blood pressure (high blood pressure causes atherosclerosis and vice versa)
- reverses heart enlargement (LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy) [xxi]
- where, as is usually the case the cause is physiological, can restore erections in men and probably can similarly benefit women in their sexual health. An erection is triggered by nitric oxide [xxii] produced by the endothelial cells, and with ADNO relaxing the muscles and improving the blood flow the cavernour chambers of the penis can fill more easily
- feeds and stimulates macrophages, which are the front line immune cells killing amongst other things salmonella, E.coli, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia and Candida albicans [xxiii]
- helps heal wounds [xxiv], shortens hospital stays and reduces hospital infections [xxv]
- in moderate to severe diabetes prevents many common but serious complications [xxvi]
- helps with rheumatoid arthritis, ulcers and urinary incontinence [xxvii] and blocks the symptoms of rarer illnesses such as Cadasil [xxviii] please see this footnote for a link to BBC coverage of the Jack Shields’ successful use of Ark 1
- inhibits Arginase (an enzyme in the urea cycle), which is associated with many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, silicosis, asthma and diabetes [xxix]
- creates Creatine (for muscle development), L-proline (for wound healing and collagen (wrinkles and hair) and L-glutamine (cognitive and memory functions
- “plays an important role in cell division, the healing of wounds, removing ammonia from the body, immune function, and the release of hormones.” [xxx]
- possibly, but on the strength only of personal reports/anecdotal evidence and therefore without any compelling evidential foundation, may help with MS, ME and hypothyroidism
- possibly help with arthritis; Arginine is found in high concentrations in the connective tissues is a component of collagen that plays a vital role in the production of new tissue and bone cells [xxxi]
8. If you have a cardiovascular problem, especially high cholesterol, you are likely to be prescribed expensive statins by your doctor. Yes statins work, but they have many potential side effects; e.g. muscle pain, muscle breakdown, kidney failure, neuropathy where the symptoms may be a feeling of tiredness, difficulty in rising from a low chair or getting out of bed, shortness of breath or difficulty walking, memory loss, inability to concentrate, cognitive problems, fatigue (especially in women) and increased diabetes and cancer risks [xxxii]. Statins also reduce your Coenzyme Q10 so ask for a supplement if you are taking them. [xxxiii] They interfere with a biochemical pathway shared by both cholesterol and CoQ10 and for this reason it has been asserted that, “Statins predispose you to heart failure.” [xxxiv] It is generally said (for instance on the front page of the “Daily Express” 8th April, 2013) that the benefit of statins outweighs the risks. Even if that is so (please see the next paragraph) ADNO is a natural remedy, which outstrips statins in every respect. In 1997 a test on rabbits compared L-Arginine with the statin, Lovastin. Lovastin functioned well to reduce plaque formation in brain and heart arteries and to reduce thickening and plaque formation, but Arginine was more effective in both cases. Also, Arginine, unlike Lovastin, also inhibited the dangerous oxygen free radicals. [xxxv] Oxygen free radicals can begin a chemical reaction damaging cell membranes, altering DNA, turning fats into killers and triggering cancers. Cholesterol lowering statin drugs may increase Lipoprotein(a), an excess of which can impede natural healing of inflamed arteries. [xxxvi] There is not necessarily an ‘either or’ choice between statins and ADNO. Dr Ignarro and his collaborators discovered in 2006 that, “…combining [AD]NO with statin drugs could amplify by several times the effect of the statins in lowering cholesterol.” [xxxvii]
9. Cholesterol, including LDL cholesterol, is vital to our health. There is no evidence that the lower our cholesterol level the better, as mainstream medicine now seems to believe. As Professor John P. Cooke says, “Cholesterol itself is not bad. In fact, it is essential for life. Cholesterol is a building block for all cell membranes. It is also the precursor for sex hormones and other steroids that our bodies manufacture. It is only when cholesterol becomes oxidized that trouble begins.” [xxxviii] Amongst other things cholesterol is essential for vitamin D production, cortisone, brain tissue and function. Because lowering cholesterol has a deleterious impact on other body functions it has been established that men with low cholesterol were 17% more likely to die from all causes than men with high cholesterol. [xxxix] As long ago as 1992 the British Medical Journal published a critical review of cholesterol research, which concluded, “Lowering serum (blood) cholesterol concentrations does not reduce mortality (death) and is unlikely to prevent coronary heart disease. Claims of the opposite are based on preferential citation of supportive trials.” [xl] ADNO does not so much reduce cholesterol as control it and in particular by reducing the key danger of cholesterol, which is oxidization in the walls of the arteries.
Look After Your Health
10. ADNO is not of course a complete answer in that you should still try to:
- give up smoking (one cigarette can temporarily reduce NO by 33% as well as permanently damaging the endothelium [xli] and it can increase a modified amino acid called asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which opposes the ADNO production of Arginine) [xlii]
- take plenty of exercise (exercise stimulates the production of nitric oxide)
- avoid obesity
- reduce stress
- drink alcohol in moderation – one glass of red wine, which like purple grape juice, is high in antioxidants, will protect your ADNO, but after about 3 glasses the process reverses and depletes your ADNO
- eat lean meat, fruit, raw vegetables, nuts, and avoid trans and oxidized fats (saturated fat is good - please see blog on News page for 28th October, 2013) and processed and sugary foods (Professor Cooke sets out dietary recommendations, including recipes with Arginine content) [xliii]
- consider vitamin C (water soluble and so unlikely to harm you in high doses despite false scares on the Net), vitamin E (an excellent ally to ADNO in fighting fat in the arteries, but it is fat soluble and for that reason excess must be avoided – ADNO is as effective at reducing LDL oxidization but at a much lower dose. [xliv]) and if you have a high protein homocysteine take vitamins B6 and B12 and a small daily dose of folic acid
- take anti-oxidants, such as folic acid, vitamin C and E, co-enzyme Q10, garlic and green tea, because anti-oxidants prolong the ADNO in your body by opposing its break down/oxygenization by oxygen
- but still remember to take at least 6 grams of Arginine per day, because ADNO can (a) improve your health, (b) boost you immune system and (c) give you more energy to undertake strenuous exercise.
11. There have been many Arginine trials, some intravenous and some oral and many with high levels of daily dosage (30 grams daily and very much more), but there has been no significant side effect reported (with the possible exception of a dry mouth in one study and a recurrence of a cold sore in another). Noting please the Disclaimer below, a degree of caution should be taken if you suffer from migraines, depression, autoimmune disorders, cirrhosis, hyperkalemia and septic shock. There is no evidence that ADNO worsens any of these conditions, but if you suffer from them it would be sensible to keep under review your reaction to the supplement. Take medical advice if you are pregnant, lactating, or if you are taking blood thinners, or heart medicine like Beta Blockers. Use caution too if taking Viagra as well as Arginine, because you do not want to over-reduce your blood pressure. There are, however, no reports of an adverse event noted by Professor Cooke. [xlv] In the light of a single 153 patient study reported in a 2006 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association caution should be exercised in taking L-arginine within 6 months of a myocardial infarction/heart attack.
Why Ark1 (The Pink Drink) is the Best
12. I was a successful barrister. I came upon soluble Arginine by chance. I started using it for sports about three years ago, but after about a year of taking it daily I realised (a) how miraculous it is and (b) how few people know about its miraculous benefits. In the light of my Damascene conversion about the powers of Arginine I have now given up my legal practice and committed myself to spreading news of the Arginine Solution. Unless we live on game meat, like a gamekeeper I once met, we all need more Arginine and many of us need it as a matter of life and death. I have seen it create some miraculous changes in people’s lives. It is my belief that Arkworld’s Ark 1 drink (“the Pink Drink”) is the best source of Arginine supplementation, because:
- the L-Argine is derived from soya (absolutely not genetically modified) and all ingredients are naturally derived (no artificial/chemical additives or sweeteners) and so it is suitable for vegetarians and vegans
- the natural sweetening in a scoop is the equivalent of one mouthful of a Golden Delicious apple
- it is formulated and manufactured by the great Jeff Golini – former Mr Universe, then know as the “Eighth Wonder of the World” and now a wonder of formulation – and his All American Pharmaceuticals
- it is unique in that it is the only such supplement, which tricks the stomach into thinking that it is already digested thereby moving the Arginine quickly to the Villi and macrophages in the intestines for maximum absorption (Ensyme Co Q10, a leading anti-oxidant will also help the body in absorbing and transporting supplements to the cells). Other supplements may languish in the stomach and some may simply pass out of the body largely complete and undigested as so graphically described in “Dead Doctors Don’t Lie”
- it contains other important vitamins and minerals formulated to complement the Arginine, including L-citrulline, alpha lipoic acid and all the elements recommended by Dr Ignarro [xlvi] (“Any supplement program that does not contain L-citrulline and antioxidants to augment the L-arginine – and most on the market do not – is missing out on a major piece of the potential of NO to improve your cardiovascular health” [xlvii])
- the formulation, which contains elements in ideal ratios to maximise the absorption and to prolong the impact of the Arginine, is known to bodybuilders as ‘stacking’ and this also makes Ark 1 unique
- two scoops (just three-quarters full) in water provide a tropical fruit tasting drink, which will give you at least 6 grams of Arginine per day as recommended by Dr Ignarro, who says if you take less than 4 grams you are ‘wasting your money’. If you take enough inferior tablets to provide even on their own claims [xlviii] 6 grams per day you will realize how much more expensive they are). Please note that in fact three-quarters of a scoop should produce 3 grams
- all elements in Ark 1, like all Arkworld supplements, are pharmaceutical grade one
- Arkworld holds a renewable supplement patent on Arginine Alpha Ketoglutarate
- it (“the Pink Drink”) has been subject to academic research and has been independently found to:
- improve severe-intensity exercise endurance by 20%
- significantly reduce systolic blood pressure
- reduce the oxygen cost of exercise [xlix]
Tom Gakes is a top Dutch cyclist. His sponsors provide him with Arkworld supplements. He writes, “….the Arkworld products they sponsor me are performance enhancing, they are actually improving my health and not on the WADA prohibited list.” [l] At least two top English football clubs, a top British tennis player and a gold medal winning Olympian have benefited from the supplement.
See also the youtube clip, in which leading marketing expert, Kerwin Rae, describes how Ark 1 had a “profound” impact on his problems with mental clarity, short term memory and recall following a serious stroke (please don’t wait to have the stroke before taking Arginine) [li]
The word Arginine is derived from the Greek word ‘arginoeis’/αργοζ meaning ‘bright’. So for us the future can be bright if the future’s pink.
Roderick Lane is a co-founder of the London College of Naturopathic Medicine.
Independent Arkworld Distributor.
Disclaimer: The ingredients and prices of the products may vary from time to time. The above information is provided by Roderick Lane as an Independent Arkworld Distributor solely as a guide to his genuinely held belief in these products, and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your doctor or other health care professional, or for any information contained on or in any product label, guidance, or packaging. The products and the claims made about specific products on or through this site have not been evaluated and approved by Arkworld, or the United States Food and Drug Administration, or any other like administrative body in any country. The products themselves are approved for sale in the USA and the UK, but the products are not approved as medicines to prevent, diagnose, treat, or prevent disease. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for taking of any medication or other treatment. You should consult your doctor or other appropriate healthcare professional before commencing any therapy, diet, exercise or course of food/nutritional supplements, or medication, or if you have any reason to think you have any problem with your health.
Suggested reading, includes “The Arginine Solution” by Dr Fied et al, Warner Books, “NO More Heart Disease” by Dr. L. J. Ignarro (Nobel Laureate – I have a signed copy), St Martin’s Press, “Arginine Amino Acid” edited by N. L. Jacobs, Nova, “The Cardiovascular Cure” by Professor John P. Cooke, Broadway Books, “The Dangers of Creatinine” by Jeff Golini, Booklocker, “Reverse Heart Disease Now”, Dr Stephen T. Sinatra et al., Wiley, and “Heart Frauds” by Dr Charles T. McGee, Piccadily Books.
[i] “Just one fast-food meal can make your endothelial cells sick.” Professor John P. Cooke, “The Cardiovascular Cure”, page 47
[ii] Dr Louis J. Ignarro, “NO More Heart Disease”, page xiv
[iii] Rosano et al, “L-Arginine Improves Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Hypersensitives”, Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Supplement A0, 31 (1998), 262A.
[iv] Hurson et al, “Metabolic Effects of Arginine in a Healthy elderly Population”, Journal of Parental & Enteral Nutrician, 19 (1995), 227-230.
[v] Park et al, “Stimulation of Lymphocyte Natural Cytotoxity by L-Arginine,” The Lancet, 337 (1991), 645-646.
[vi] Takeda et al, “Inhibitory Effect of L-Arginine on Growth of Rat Mammary Tumors …” Cancer Research, 35 (1975), 2390-2393, Feinman et al, “Tumor Necrosis Factor Is an Important Mediator of Tumor Cell Killing by Human Monocytes,” Journal of Immunology, 138 (1987), 635-640, Hibbs et al, “L-Arginine is Required for Expression of Activated Macrophage effector Mechanism…,”The Journal of Immunology, 138 (1987), 550-565, Kwon et al, “Inhibition of Tumor Cell…by Macrophage Derived Nitric Oxide,” Journal of Experimental Medicine 174 (1991), 761-767.
[vii] Yeh et al., “Effect of arginine on angiogenesis induced by human colon cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies”, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21(6), 538-543.
[viii] Merimee et al, “Effect of Argine on Serum Levels of Human Growth-Hormone,” The Lancet 2 (1965), 668-670.
[ix] Dr Ignarro, Ibid, page xvi, recommending “All or nothing.”
[x] Dr Ignarro, Ibid, page 73
[xi] Clarkson et al, “Oral L-Arginine Improves Endothelium-Dependent Dilation in Hypercholestorlmic Young Adults,” Circulation, Supplement I, 92 (1995) I-366
[xii] Professor John P. Cooke, Director of Vacular Medicine at Stanford University, “”The Cardiovascular Cure”, page 38.
[xiii] ADNO has been shown to be as effective as vitamin E at preventing oxidation , but at a much lower dose (Hogg et al., “Inhibition of Macrophage-Dependent Low Density”, Journal of Lipid Research, 36 (1993), 1756 – 1762)
[xiv] Cooke et al, “Antiatherogenic Effects of L-Arginine in the Hypercholesterolmic Rabbit,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, 90 (1992), 1168-1172.
[xv] Wolf et al, “Dietary L-Argine Supplementation Normalizes Platelet Aggregation in Hypercholesterolmic Humans,” Journal of the Amercian College of Cardiology, 29 (1997), 479-485.
[xvi] Boder-Boger et al, “L-Arginine Infusion Decreases Peripheral Arterial Resistance and Inhibits
[xvii] Kuo et al, “Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extended into Coronary Microcirculation: Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Response by L-Arginine,” Circulation Research 70 (1992), 465-476.
[xviii] Professor Cooke, Ibid, page 19
[xix] Professor Cooke, Ibid, page 41
[xx] Wolf et al, “Dietary L-Arginine Supplementation Normalizes Platelet Aggresgation in Hypercholesterolmic Humans,” journal of the American College of Cardiology, 29 (1997), 479-485
[xxi] “The Arginine Solution”, page 120.
[xxii] Rajifer et al, “Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Relaxation of the Corpus Cavernosum in Response to Nonadrenergic, Noncholinergic Neurotransmission,” The New England journal of Medicine, 2326 (1992), 90-94.
[xxiii] Green et al, “Antimicrobial and Immunopathologic Effects of Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Synthesis,” Current Opinion in Infectious Disesases, 6 (1993), 384-396.
[xxiv] Barbul et al, “Intravenous Alimentation with High Arginine Levels Improves Wound Healing and Immune Function,” Journal of Surgical research, 38 (1985), E459-334.
[xxv] Barbul et al, “Intravenous Alimentation with High Arginine Levels Improves Wound Healing and Immune Function,2 Journal of Surgical research, 38 (1985), 228-334.
[xxvi] Dr Ignarro, Ibid, page 48.
[xxvii] Dr Ignarro, Ibid, pages 193, 199 and 200 respectively.
[xxviii] Have you seen this BBC documentary news clip from “Inside Out”? It is about Jack Shields, who suffers from Cadasil, which predisposes him to have strokes. " After being diagnosed with Cadasil he was not prepared to go away, take the aspirin and die. Instead, he searched for a treatment. ....Three years ago he began taking L-Arginine. It's an amino-acid, which opens the blood vessels." At 4.09 you will see that he takes Ark 1
[xxix] Adras Hrabak and Zoltan Kukor, “Arginine Amino Acid”, Nova 2011, pp 53 - 66
[xxx] Jacobs, “Arginine Amino Acid”, page vi
[xxxi] Balch, M.D., James F., and Balch, C.N.C, Phyllis A., Prescription for Nutritional Healing, Second Edition (Garden City Park, NY: 1997, Avery Publishing Group), pages 35-36. ISBN 0-89529-727-2
[xxxii] Newman and Hulley, “Carcinogenicity of Lipid Lowering Drugs,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 275 (1996), 55-69.
[xxxiii] Professor Cooke, Ibid, page 212
[xxxv] Boger et al, “dietary L-Arginine Reduces the Progression of Atherosclerosis in Cholesterol Fed Rabbits: Comparison with Lovastin,” Circulation, 96 (1997), 1282-1290.
[xxxvi] Sinatra et al, “Reverse Heart Disease Now”, page 41.
[xxxvii] Dr Ignarro, Ibid, page 36 (paper published in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA, 2004)
[xxxviii] “The Cardiovascular Cure”, page 38
[xxxix] Hacobs et al, Circulation 1992; 86:1046-1060
[xl] Ravskov, U., British Medical Journal 1992; 305:15-19 and please see chapter 5 of Dr Charles T. McGee’s fascinating “Heart Frauds”
[xli] Heitzer et al, “Antioxidant Vitamin C Improves Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Smokers” Circulation, 94 (1996) 6-9
[xlii] Professor Cooke, Ibid, page 25
[xliii] Professor Cooke, Ibid, pages 47 to 161
[xliv] Hogg et al, “inhibition of Macrophage-Dependent Low Density,” Journal of Lipid Research, 36 (1993), 1756-1762.
[xlv] Professor Cooke, Ibid, page 211
[xlvi] Dr Ignarro, Ibid, page 79
[xlvii] Dr Ignarro, Ibid, page xv
[xlviii] cheap supplements may have very inaccurate indications of contents and likely absorption; e.g. Good Housekeeping analyzed 6 popular brands of St John’s wort and found a 20 fold difference in potency